Male dominated Indian societies have prevented the flow of property across generations to women. While some matriarchal tribal societies like the Garos in Meghalaya and others in Kerala have followed the matriarchal property system, they remain as miniscule minorities and the subject of case studies.
Among Hindus, the system of Dayabhaga and Mitakshara system was followed before the Hindu Succession Act took over. But till the Act’s amendment in 2005, loopholes were used to conveniently deny property rights to women. Among Muslim women in India, the shariat laws used regionally have been criticised of not allowing women equal property rights. Beyond everything, even the recent Union Budget’s property registration stamp duty leeway to women (for example, in Delhi, the stamp duty is 4% for women registrants, against 6% for men) in no way affects male mentality as when the property in question is generally worth lakhs, the leeway is just a few thousands. India needs stricter legislation, and not a piecemeal leeway.